Whether it is business, education or the government sector, photocopy Machine or Xerox machine is a huge requirement. Today, many copies of any document can be made very cheap and in a few seconds by photocopy machine. But there was a time when the second copies of a document were made by writing by hand or by carbon paper and that was considered the most simple and cost-effective method.
Then how and why did the invention of the photocopy machine? And who is the person who invented it?
- 1 Story of Chester Carlson and Photocopy Machine
- 1.1 Birth and Early Life
- 1.2 College Education and Job
- 1.3 Position of Patent manager
- 1.4 Problems in Making Copies of Patent Applications
- 1.5 First Photo Copy Machine Manufacture
- 1.6 Problem of Capital
- 1.7 Contract from ‘Batley Memorial Institute’
- 1.8 Carlson’s Photocopy Machine by ‘Halide’ Company
- 1.9 Plans to Lease the Herald-Xerox Machine
Story of Chester Carlson and Photocopy Machine
The credit for the invention of the modern photocopy machine goes to Chester Carlson, who was a patent manager in a company. Given the many copies of the patent application and the difficulty of hand-copying it, he built a photocopied machine.
Birth and Early Life
Chester Carlson was born on February 8, 1906 in Seattle, USA. His father, Olf Adolf Carlson, was a barber. Carlson was small, when his father was suffering from T.B. Later they also became afflicted with arthritis.
Due to father’s illness, at a very early age, Carlson started doing little work to support his family. By the time of fourteen years, he had become a major source of income for his family.
College Education and Job
In spite of family financial crunch, Carlson completed his college studies with California Institute of Technology, Pasadena and started looking for a job.
He sent applications for 82 companies, but could not succeed in getting a job anywhere. Hardly he got a job as a research engineer in Bell Telephone Company, where his salary was only $ 35. On this salary, they were living their lives in such a way that in the recession, they were shown a way out of this job.
Position of Patent manager
After being discharged from the first job, Carlson was bought by an electronic firm ‘P.R.’ from New York. Mallory Company ‘got a job. They were hardworking. On his hard work, he soon reached the patent department’s manager position in this company.
Even after becoming a manager, his passion for learning did not diminish. They began to increase their qualifications. He joined Law School in Night Shift so that he could become a patent lawyer in the future.
Problems in Making Copies of Patent Applications
While working patents in the company, Carlson needed many copies of the patent application. Due to lack of any other instrument, they had to make copies of all these copies manually, in which a lot of time was wasted.
For Karlsson, this task was more difficult because they had weak eyesight and had Arthritis.
First Photo Copy Machine Manufacture
To solve your problem, Carlson has been sitting in the library for several hours and started reading scientific articles and books. He also started experimenting with the principles of “electro photography” by making a small laboratory in his home kitchen.
After all, his hard work brought color and his experiments got initial success. In 1937, he applied for his first patent.
Karlson took the photocopy machine. But because of being expensive and impractical, his commercial use was not possible. In order to improve their machine, they were re-assembled in experiments.
Carlson used to stay in his experiments day and night, so that his wife Doris was fed up. Many times, he drove out the equipment using Carlson and threw it out of the kitchen. But Carlson did not stop his experiments. Eventually his wife divorced him.
Problem of Capital
Carlson did not give up hope even after the marriage broke down. He was sure he would build a photocopy machine for practical use. He had only one problem before and he was the capital of the
For capital investment, they are IBM, Kodak, RCA As many companies went to, but no company invested in their projects. Everyone believed that carbon is very cheap and hand-copying is an economical, simple, and effective way. So there is no future of photocopyer.
Contract from ‘Batley Memorial Institute’
Eventually agreed to contract technical consultation with ‘Battelle Memorial Institute’ Carlson. Under this contract, the ‘Battal Memorial Institute’ had to do research on Carlson’s photocopy machine and after landing in the market, Carlson had to give 40% royalties.
The ‘Batley Memorial Institute’ has made several improvements to Carlson’s machine. They created a photo-conductive plate with selenium layer instead of the sulfur plate.
Carlson’s Photocopy Machine by ‘Halide’ Company
In 1947, the ‘Battelle Memorial Institute’ signed an agreement with Roswell’s small company ‘Halide’. Under which, ‘Halide’ company started researching on this machine. The company researched this for about 13 years and spent $ 7.5 million in these research.
‘Halide’ had taken many loans for his research, which led to he was facing financial hardships. Hence, in 1959, he was named IBM. Proposed the sale of Photo Copier in front of. IBM The thought of that had not changed yet, he refused.
IBM Despite the denial, ‘Halide’ continued to pursue research with full conviction and, finally, in 1960, the Photo Copier Herald-Xerox was successful in launching the market.
Plans to Lease the Herald-Xerox Machine
At the time, the price of the Herald-Xerox machine was $ 29,500. Given the high price, it was less likely to be sold. So, the company has given the foresight and plans to lease it.
They got the advertisement that hire Photocopy machines for $ 9 5 and get 2000 photocopies for free. On every copy the company used to take 4 cents and guaranteed maintenance.
This company’s policy proved to be effective and photocopies became popular. This gives the company a lot of economic benefits. Until 1969, the ‘Halide’ company, which had become Xerox Corporation, was earning $ 1 billion annually from photocopiers.
Thus, the success of the photocopy machine not only brought the Herald company / Xerox Corporation to economic power, but also made Chester Carlson richer.